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Accordingly, in my view, the affective dimension of pain is as much a part of the representational content of pain as the sensory dimension is. In other words, it represents tissue damage as having the Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Oral Solution (Zamicet)- Multum of being bad. Not only that, experiencing tissue damage (i. These truisms should not be confused with this last claim, which is a substantive metaphysical Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Oral Solution (Zamicet)- Multum. This is a non-trivial question for Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Oral Solution (Zamicet)- Multum strong representationalist who aspires to be a naturalist.

Recall that strong representationalism usually comes with a naturalistic story about how experiences acquire their representational content. So it sex viagra important that representing tissue damage as bad can be cashed out in terms of whatever naturalistic story a representationalist has in his disposal.

Many representationalists including Tye defend (or at least start with) an informational theory. But what is the natural property of the tissue damage itself that is detected or tracked by the experience so that we can say the experience carries information about it. In particular, given that they normally signal injury, such experiences are typically causally associated with a certain battery of cognitive and behavioral effects.

For one thing, it transforms strong representationalism into a partly internalist theory. To explain how, a representationalist has to advert to additional (learning. See Corns 2014 for criticism. Including the affective phenomenology, as we may recall, is what the IASP definition of pain seems to recommend.

It seems also embedded in the common-sense conception of pain: pains are unpleasant. These come in a variety of forms, sometimes motivated by different sets of concerns, and accordingly, emphasizing different aspects of pain.

But the basic idea is that the nature of pain is complex consisting of at least two mental elements. Generally one element is characterized by using one or more of the following group of terms: sensory, perceptual, representational, Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Oral Solution (Zamicet)- Multum, descriptive, or informational.

Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Oral Solution (Zamicet)- Multum other is characterized by one or more of the following: affective, emotional, motivational, evaluative, directive, or imperative. So far we have been focusing on those theories that have emphasized the former aspect. Indeed this has been the overwhelmingly dominant style of theorizing - at least in the philosophical tradition.

But in the last 10 years or so, there has been an increasing recognition of the fact stomach bug pain has an affective and motivational aspect which seems at least prima facie distinct from its sensory or perceptual aspect (see next section for some scientific evidence).

As observed, most perceptual theorists and weak representationalists could, and as a matter of historical fact, did accommodate the affective aspect of pain to various degrees of success - mostly, by going cognitivist as described above.

There are historical precedents to this kind of approach (e. In this vein, see also Borg et al. The second component is a simultaneous and non-inferential evaluation of this phenomenal state. Nelkin conceives of this evaluation as a form of spontaneous de re judgment about the phenomenal state as representing harm to the body. He thinks that both elements are necessary for pain experience. Surprisingly, however, Nelkin claims that the evaluative component should not be equated with affect and motivation involved in experiencing pain.

According to Nelkin, these two are only contingently related to pain experiences. Nevertheless, they have intentional contents rationally responsive to a broader range of background conative and cognitive states of the experiencer. Thus as felt evaluations they inherently motivate and rationalize behavior typically associated with pain and pleasure.

Therefore, they are not a separate or separable component of pain. Pains and pleasure just are felt evaluations. Both defend strong representationalism for both the sensory and affective components of pains. Jacobson 2018 additionally develops an attitudinal first-order anti-damage desire account of pain affect.

Klein (2007, 2015) further develops this imperative account of pain in a more radical way: he proposes that pain experiences are exhausted by their imperative content alone. He claims that they have no baby umbilical cord (in his words, representational) content at rustic. He intends his account in the same metaphysical spirit in which strong representationalists present their account: the difference being in the kind of intentional content pains have.

According to Klein, it is purely imperative: a proscription against acting with bodily parts where pain is felt. On his view, pains are essentially emotions.

It has been well known that certain surgical procedures, some drugs and certain pathological conditions reduce or remove the unpleasantness of shawn johnson while preserving its Duloxetine Capsules (Irenka)- Multum aspect. These data typically come from patients who have undergone prefrontal lobotomy (Freeman et al.

These patients by and large claim that they are in pain, and they can recognize and identify their pain as such, but do not feel or seem bothered or distressed in ways characteristic to having pain experiences.

In fact, there is evidence that pain asymbolia may be the only form of genuine dissociation (Grahek 2007). Experimental pain stimuli fail to produce any recognizable affective reactions. The lobotomy and morphine patients, on the other hand, do show the usual affective reactions and symptoms when they are stimulated momentarily by normally painful stimuli.

This kind of selective impairment, he says, can produce not only dissociation of the kind we are familiar with, but many more bizarre phenomena we can expect to find and imagine happening. His insight is that our ordinary notion of pain with its essentialist intuitions cannot withstand the implications of such scientific developments in pain research. In the case of reactive dissociation (RD) patients, these two main pillars of our ordinary concept of pain come into irremediable conflict according to Dennett.



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