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Respondents speak of the one percent of women seeking abortions who are married and would choose not to notify their husbands of their plans. It is an undue burden, and therefore invalid. This conclusion is in no way inconsistent with our decisions upholding parental notification or consent requirements. Those enactments, and our judgment that they are constitutional, are based on the quite reasonable assumption that minors will benefit from consultation with their parents and that Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA will often not realize that their parents have their best interests at heart.

We cannot adopt a parallel assumption about adult women. We recognize that a husband has a "deep and proper concern and interest.

With regard to the children he has fathered and Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA, the Court has recognized his "cognizable and substantial" interest in their custody. If this case concerned a State's ability to require the mother to notify the father before taking some action with respect to a living child raised by both, therefore, it would be reasonable to conclude as a general matter that the father's interest in the welfare of the child and the mother's interest are equal.

Before birth, however, the issue takes on a very different cast. It is an inescapable biological fact that state regulation with respect to the child a Mifeprex (Mifepristone (RU486))- FDA is carrying will have a far greater impact on the mother's liberty than on the father's.

The effect of state regulation on fbn1 woman's protected liberty is doubly deserving of scrutiny in such a case, as the State has touched not Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA upon the private Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA of the family but upon the very bodily integrity of the pregnant woman. The Court has held that "when the wife and the husband disagree on this decision, the view of only one of the two marriage partners can prevail.

Inasmuch as it is the Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA who physically bears the child and who is the more directly and immediately affected by the pregnancy, as between the two, the balance weighs in her favor. If the right of privacy means anything, it is the right of the individual, married or single, to be free from unwarranted governmental intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bear or beget a child.

The Constitution Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA individuals, men and women alike, from unjustified state interference, even when that interference is enacted into law for the benefit of their spouses.

There was a time, not so long ago, when a different understanding of the family and of the Constitution prevailed. Only one generation has passed since this Court observed that "woman is still regarded as the center of home and family life," with attendant "special responsibilities" that precluded full and independent legal status under the Constitution.

These views, of course, are no longer consistent with our understanding of the family, the individual, or the Constitution. In keeping with our rejection of the common-law understanding of a woman's role within the family, the Court held in Danforth that the Constitution does not permit a State to require a married woman to obtain her husband's consent before undergoing an abortion.

The principles that guided the Court in Danforth should be our guides today. For the great many women who are victims of abuse inflicted by their husbands, or whose children are the victims of such abuse, a spousal notice requirement enables the husband to wield an effective veto over his wife's decision. Whether the prospect of notification itself deters such women from seeking abortions, or whether the husband, through physical force or psychological pressure or economic coercion, prevents his wife from obtaining an abortion until it is too late, the notice requirement will often be tantamount to Minocycline Hydrochloride Microspheres (Arestin)- Multum veto found unconstitutional in Danforth.

The women most affected by this law-those who most reasonably fear the consequences of notifying their husbands that they are pregnant are in the gravest danger. The husband's interest in the life of the child his wife is carrying does not permit the State to empower him with this troubling degree of authority over his wife.

The contrary view leads to consequences reminiscent of the common law. A husband has no enforceable right to require a wife to advise him before she exercises her personal choices. If a husband's interest in the potential life of the child outweighs a wife's liberty, the State could require a married woman to notify her husband before she uses a postfertilization contraceptive.

Perhaps next in line would be a statute requiring pregnant married women to notify their husbands before engaging in conduct causing risks to the fetus. After all, if the husband's interest in the fetus' safety is a sufficient predicate for state regulation, the State could reasonably conclude that pregnant wives should notify their husbands before drinking alcohol or smoking.

Perhaps married women should notify their husbands before using contraceptives or before undergoing any type of surgery that may have complications affecting the husband's interest in his wife's reproductive organs.

And if a husband's interest justifies notice in any of these cases, one might reasonably argue that it justifies exactly what the Danforth Court held it did not justify-a requirement of the husband's consent as well. A State may not give to a man the kind of dominion over his wife that parents exercise over their children. Section 3209 embodies a view of marriage consonant with the common-law status of married women but repugnant to our present understanding of marriage and of the nature of the rights secured by the Constitution.

Women do not lose their constitutionally protected liberty when they marry. The Constitution protects all individuals, male or female, married or unmarried, from the abuse of governmental power, even where that power is employed for the supposed benefit of a member of the individual's family.

We next consider the parental consent provision. Except in Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA medical emergency, an unemancipated young woman under 18 may not Testosterone Enanthate Injection (Xyosted)- FDA an abortion unless she and one of her parents (or guardian) provides informed consent as defined above.

If neither a parent nor a guardian Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA consent, a court may authorize the performance of an abortion upon a determination that the young woman is mature and capable Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA giving informed consent and has in Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA given her informed consent, or that an Glipizide (Glucotrol)- FDA would be in her best interests.

We have been over most of this ground before. Our cases establish, and we reaffirm today, that a State may require a minor Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA an abortion to obtain the consent of a parent or guardian, provided that there is an adequate judicial bypass procedure.

Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA these precedents, in our view, the one-parent consent requirement and judicial bypass procedure are constitutional. The only argument made by petitioners respecting this provision and to which our prior decisions do not speak is the contention that the Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA consent requirement is invalid because it requires informed parental consent.

For the most part, petitioners' Levonorgestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Kurvelo)- FDA is a reprise of their argument with respect to the informed consent requirement in general, and we reject it for the reasons given above. Indeed, some of the provisions regarding informed consent have particular force with respect to minors: the waiting period, for example, may provide the parent or parents of a pregnant young woman the opportunity to consult with her in private, and to discuss the consequences of her decision the history of psychology the context of the values and moral or religious principles of their family.

See Hodgson, supra, 497 U. Under the recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the statute, every facility which performs abortions is required to file a report stating its name and address as well as the name and address of any related entity, such as a controlling or subsidiary organization. In the case of state-funded institutions, the la roche 1 becomes public.

Every abortion facility must also file quarterly reports showing the number of abortions performed broken down by trimester. In all events, the identity of each woman who has had an abortion remains confidential. In Danforth, 428 U.

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