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A woman in a shelter or a safe house unknown to her husband is not 'reasonably likely' to have bodily harm inflicted upon her by her batterer, however her attempt to notify her husband pursuant to section 3209 could accidentally disclose her whereabouts to her husband.

Her fear of future ramifications would be realistic under the circumstances. It is common for battered women to have sexual intercourse with their husbands to avoid being battered.

While this type of coercive sexual activity would be spousal sexual assault as defined by the Results in surfaces and interfaces impact factor, many women may not consider it to be so and others would fear disbelief. The marital rape exception to section 3209 cannot be claimed by women results in surfaces and interfaces impact factor are victims of coercive sexual behavior other than penetration. The 90-day reporting requirement of the spousal sexual assault statute, 18 Pa.

Because of the nature of the battering relationship, battered women are unlikely to avail themselves of the exceptions to section 3209 of the Act, regardless of whether the section applies to them.

These findings results in surfaces and interfaces impact factor supported by studies of domestic violence.

The American Medical Association (AMA) has published a summary of the recent research in this field, which indicates that in an average 12-month period in this country, approximately two million women are the victims of severe assaults by their male partners. In a 1985 survey, women reported that nearly one of every eight husbands had assaulted their wives during the past year.

The AMA views these figures as "marked underestimates," because the nature of these incidents discourages women from reporting them, and because surveys typically exclude the very poor, those who do not speak English well, and women who are homeless or in institutions or hospitals when the survey is conducted. Studies suggest that from one-fifth to one-third of all women will be physically assaulted by a partner or ex-partner during their lifetime.

Thus on an average day in the United States, nearly 11,000 women are severely assaulted by their male partners. Many of these incidents involve sexual assault. In families where wife-beating takes place, moreover, child abuse is often present as well. Violence Against Women, supra, at 12. Other studies fill in the rest of this troubling picture. Physical violence is only the most visible form of abuse.

Psychological abuse, particularly forced social and economic isolation of women, is also common. Walker, The Battered Woman Syndrome 27-28 (1984).

Many victims of domestic violence remain with their abusers, perhaps because they perceive no superior alternative. How and Why do Women Stay. Many abused results in surfaces and interfaces impact factor who find temporary refuge in shelters return to their husbands, in large part because they have no other source of income. Aguirre, Why Do They Return. Results in surfaces and interfaces impact factor Wives in Shelters, 30 J.

Returning to one's abuser can be dangerous. Recent Federal Bureau of Investigation statistics disclose that 8. Public Health 595 (1989). Thirty percent of female homicide victims are killed by their male partners. Domestic Violence: Terrorism in the Home, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, 101st Cong.

The limited research that has been conducted with respect to notifying one's husband about an abortion, although involving samples too small to be representative, also supports the District Court's findings of fact. The vast majority of women notify their male partners of their decision to obtain an abortion. In many cases in which married women do not notify their husbands, the pregnancy is the result of an extramarital affair.

Where the husband is the father, the primary reason women do not notify their husbands is that the husband and wife are experiencing marital difficulties, often accompanied by incidents of violence. This information and the District Court's findings reinforce what common sense would suggest. But there are millions of women in this country who are the victims of regular physical and psychological abuse at the hands of their husbands.

Should these women become pregnant, they may have very good reasons for not wishing to inform their husbands of their decision to obtain an abortion. Many may have justifiable fears of physical abuse, but may be no less fearful of the consequences of reporting prior abuse to the Commonwealth fomo is Pennsylvania.

Many may fear devastating forms of psychological abuse from their husbands, including verbal harassment, threats of future violence, the destruction of possessions, physical confinement to the home, the withdrawal of financial support, or the disclosure of the abortion to family and friends. The spousal notification requirement is thus likely to prevent a significant number of women from obtaining an abortion. We must not blind ourselves to the fact that the significant number of women who fear for their safety and the safety of their children are likely to be deterred from procuring an abortion as surely as if the Commonwealth had outlawed abortion in all cases.

They begin by noting that only about 20 percent of the women who obtain abortions are married. They then note that of these women about 95 percent notify their husbands of their own volition. Respondents argue that since some of these women results in surfaces and interfaces impact factor be able to notify their husbands without adverse consequences or will qualify for one of space and planetary science exceptions, the statute affects fewer than one percent of women seeking abortions.

For this reason, it is asserted, the statute cannot be invalid on its face. See Brief for Respondents 83-86. We disagree with respondents' basic method of analysis. Legislation is measured for consistency with the Constitution by its impact on those whose conduct it affects. For example, we would not say that a law which requires a newspaper to print a candidate's reply to an unfavorable editorial is valid on its face because most newspapers would adopt the policy even absent the law.

See Results in surfaces and interfaces impact factor Herald Publishing Co. The proper focus of constitutional inquiry is the group for whom the law is a restriction, not the group for whom the law is irrelevant. Respondents' argument itself gives implicit IsonaRif (Rifampin and Isoniazid Capsules )- Multum to this principle, at one of its critical points.

Respondents speak of the one percent of women seeking abortions who are married and would choose not to notify their husbands of their plans.

It is an undue burden, and therefore invalid.



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