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The same holds true for the power to control women's bodies. The woman's constitutional liberty interest also involves her freedom to decide matters of the highest privacy and the most personal nature.

A woman considering abortion faces "a difficult choice having serious and personal consequences of major importance to her own future-perhaps to the salvation of her own immortal soul. The authority to make such traumatic and yet empowering decisions is an element of basic human dignity. As the joint opinion so eloquently demonstrates, a woman's Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA to terminate her pregnancy is nothing less than a matter of conscience.

Serious questions arise, however, when a State attempts to "persuade the woman to choose childbirth over abortion. Decisional autonomy must limit the State's power to inject into a woman's most personal deliberations its own views of what is best. This theme runs throughout our decisions concerning reproductive freedom. In general, Roe's requirement that restrictions on abortions before viability be justified by the State's interest in maternal health has prevented States from interjecting regulations designed to influence a woman's decision.

Thus, we have upheld regulations of abortion that are not efforts to sway or direct a woman's choice but rather are efforts to enhance the deliberative quality of that decision or are neutral regulations on the health aspects of her decision. We have, for example, upheld regulations requiring written informed consent, see Planned Parenthood of Central Mo. Conversely, we have consistently rejected state efforts to prejudice a woman's choice, either by choking game the information Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA to her, see Bigelow v.

In my opinion, the principles established in this long line of cases and the wisdom reflected in Justice Powell's opinion for the Court in Akron (and followed by the Court just six years ago in Thornburgh ) should govern our decision today. Those sections require a physician or counselor to provide the woman after the workout a range of materials clearly designed to persuade her to choose not to undergo the abortion.

Those sections, which require the physician to inform a woman of the nature and risks of the abortion procedure and the medical risks of carrying to term, are neutral requirements comparable to those imposed in other medical procedures. Those sections indicate no effort by the State to influence the woman's choice in any way. If anything, such requirements enhance, rather than skew, the woman's decisionmaking. Such a requirement arguably furthers the State's interests in two ways, neither of which is constitutionally permissible.

First, it may be argued that the 24-hour delay is justified by the mere fact that it is likely to reduce the number of abortions, thus furthering the State's interest in potential life. But such an argument would justify any form of coercion that placed an obstacle in the woman's path. The State cannot further its interests by simply wearing down the ability of the pregnant woman to Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA her constitutional right.

Second, it can more reasonably be argued that the 24-hour delay furthers the State's interest in ensuring that the woman's decision is informed and thoughtful. But there is no evidence that the mandated delay benefits women or that it is necessary to enable the physician to convey any relevant information to the patient. The mandatory delay thus appears to rest on outmoded and unacceptable assumptions about the decisionmaking capacity of women.

While there are well-established and consistently maintained reasons for the State to view with skepticism the ability of minors to make decisions, see Hodgson v.

In the alternative, the delay requirement may be premised on the belief that the decision to terminate a pregnancy is presumptively wrong.

This premise is illegitimate. Those who disagree vehemently about the legality and morality of abortion agree dymista one thing: The decision to terminate Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA pregnancy is profound and difficult. No person undertakes such a decision lightly-and States may not presume that a woman has failed to reflect adequately merely because her conclusion differs from the State's preference.

A woman who has, in the privacy of her thoughts and conscience, weighed the options and made her decision cannot clarify forced to reconsider all, simply because the State believes she has come to the wrong conclusion.

A woman who decides to terminate her pregnancy is entitled to the same respect as a woman who decides to carry the fetus to term.

The mandatory waiting period denies women that equal respect. In my Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA, a correct application of the "undue burden" standard leads to the same conclusion concerning the constitutionality of these Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA. A state-imposed burden on the exercise of a constitutional right is measured both by its effects and by its character: A burden may be "undue" either because the burden is too severe or because it lacks a legitimate, rational justification.

The findings of the District Court establish the severity of the burden that the 24-hour delay imposes on many pregnant women. Yet even in those cases in which the delay is not especially onerous, it is, in my opinion, "undue" because there is no evidence that such a delay serves a useful and legitimate purpose. As indicated above, there is no legitimate reason to require a woman who knee replacement agonized over her decision to leave the clinic or hospital and return again another day.

While a general requirement that a physician Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA her patients about the risks of a proposed medical procedure is appropriate, a rigid requirement that all patients wait 24 hours or (what is true in practice) much longer to evaluate the significance of information that is either common knowledge or irrelevant is an irrational and, therefore, "undue" burden.

The counseling provisions are similarly infirm. Whenever government commands private citizens to speak or to listen, careful review of the justification for that command is particularly appropriate.

In this case, the Pennsylvania statute directs that counselors provide women seeking abortions with information concerning alternatives to abortion, the availability of medical assistance Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA, and the possibility of child-support payments. The statute requires that this information be given to all women seeking abortions, including those for whom such information is clearly useless, such as those who are married, those who have undergone the procedure in the past and are fully aware of the options, and those who are fully convinced that abortion is their only reasonable option.

Moreover, the statute requires physicians to inform all of their patients of "the probable gestational age of the unborn child. Accordingly, while I disagree with Parts IV, V-B, and V-D of the joint opinion,8 I join the remainder of the Court's opinion. Justice BLACKMUN, Rivaroxaban Film-Coated Oral Tablets (Xarelto)- FDA in part, concurring in the judgment in part, and dissenting in part.



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